linkedin facebook twitter rss

13 Mar Probability and Expectations

Statistical Probability Roulette

The sun is pretty likely to rise tomorrow – you can have confidence in that, but it is sometimes said that “there is no guarantee.” Scheduling meetings tomorrow based on the sunrise assumption is a safe bet, but there may be any number of other things that interfere with the meeting. Life is filled with […]

12 Mar Building a Concept Hierarchy

Learn Categorize Connect

Existential knowledge, our knowledge of things that exist, is hierarchical. In other words, we categorize things into classes. Objects in these classes form the content of our thoughts. We have heard about the phylogenetic tree, the “tree of life” or the system of biological classification. This is a beautiful example of a regular taxonomy (irregular might have […]

10 Mar The Context of Knowledge

Knowledge Hierarchy

What Is Knowledge? Just like the beautifully structured organization of all things in the physical universe, there is a hierarchy or taxonomy of knowledge. The levels and organization of the hierarchy, as I see them, are shown in the illustration below. Being fascinated by the concept of context, I have decided that, in this model, “context” includes […]

03 Mar Memory

30 Dec Context Models

Model Plane

Building a Model The goals of the research that evolved into Understanding Context were twofold: to investigate human physiology/psychology for clues that would let us evaluate neuromorphic computational paradigms; and to explore the possibility of new computational models using context to correlate and associate concepts. Birds fly and they are lightweight. Building models of flight with lightweight materials works […]

31 Oct Modeling Biological Systems

Possible Mechanisms of Learning, Memory and Cognition In the first section of this blog, I talked about the brain, as a whole, to establish a framework for the discussion of natural intelligence. In this section, I have delved into the inner workings of neurons, themselves to ensure we understand how complex they are, and where we […]

19 Mar Neural Networks – Section 3 Intro

Brain Network

It’s all in your head My posts on Brains and Neurons show us there is a sense of structure and order in the brain. By looking at the brain’s areas, we see how each plays a special role in processing the information necessary to support human cognition and other activities. We’ve looked at neurons and learned that each type has its own components, […]

27 Dec Microtubules

Microtubule Isozymes

Microtubules Neurons have hundreds of MT distributed in the soma and in the axon and dendrites. Microtubules, like IF, are filamentous organelles that form the cytoskeleton of neurons. Their cylindrical, composite polymers comprise part of the cytoskeletal infrastructure of cells. Their cylinders are long, and they possess a distinct polarity. Their surfaces are composed of spherical tubulin in columns […]

27 Dec Cytoskeleton Components in Cognition


A Neuron’s Skeleton Unlike the external structure of many spheroid and amorphous cells, the external structure of neurons is complex and rigidly determined. As you may remember from earlier posts, the many different types of neurons residing in particular cortical strata (in layers of the gray and white matter) each have distinctive characteristics that enable […]

29 Aug Layers of Brain Complexity

Cells In Cerebrum 6 Layers

Hierarchy: A Structural Aspect of Thought The complexity of the cerebrum is necessitated by its function as the center of cognition. Before looking at cerebral structure, consider some of the functions of thought. Thinking involves accessing memory to find what perceived data is stored, what other data in memory it is associated with, and what is the […]