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26 Nov Planning and Scheming

Paint a Brain

Select a Knowledge Representation (KR) Scheme In prior posts I have been describing the steps of building knowledge systems. A major part of Step 3: Task 1 is defining how to store knowledge – selecting a scheme. Giarratano and Riley (1989) suggest making the selection of a scheme, such as rules, frames or logic, dependent upon […]

20 Nov Identifying and Acquiring Knowledge

Key To Knowledge

One of the simplest knowledge systems is a photograph. It consists of a systematically arranged collection of pixels and its design is based almost completely on framing and focusing. Specifying knowledge software involves framing the knowledge domain and focusing on the aspects that are meaningful to users, and the constraints that affect meaning. By so saying, […]

17 Nov Environmental Awareness for AI Geeks

Selecting an Environment and Tools I plan to take a few posts in this section to focus on expert systems (Giarratano 1989), exploring the development process in greater detail. While some projects require no development, some require you to select a platform or development environment or both. There are specially designed development platforms, tools and environments that provide much of the […]

21 Oct Fuzzy Interconnectedness

Phone Brain

Fuzzy and Interconnected Techniques Section 5 suggests that the software of cognition is very fuzzy and able to operate efficiently even without having complete or totally accurate information. We said that we want to replicate that flexibility. We spoke in Section 7 about different fuzzy approaches for representing and processing information. These approaches include artificial […]

17 Oct Neural Conceptual Dependency

Representing Conceptual Graphs

Conceptual Dependency Much of this blog has been about knowledge representation: how the brain might learn and process it, how cognitive functions treat knowledge, and now, how computers may store and process it. Conceptual structures and conceptual dependency theories for computation have been useful for categorizing and representing knowledge in intuitively simple and cognitively consistent […]

14 Oct Knowledge in Non-Neural Models

Concept Graph

Non-Neural Models So far we have examined a number of models that are explicitly designed to be neuromorphic. This categorization is useful for two reasons: the apparent chaos or non-deterministic functioning of the brain is represented by these models; and neural networks explicitly use large numbers of distributed processors or neurodes that each contribute to […]

09 Oct Resolving a Paradox

Square Paradox

In time and space some things are impossible, but the pen is more powerful than reality. I can draw a world in which stairs lead in crazy, mind-bending directions, and I could probably build a structure that implemented upside-down staircases to nowhere. But I could never build the cube shown here, because it violates some […]

08 Sep Gnostic Learning Model

Hard Disk in Brain

In prior posts in this section, and periodically in other sections of my blog, I have been exploring how humans learn, and how we might replicate those processes in computer software or (less likely) hardware. The context of the learning, or knowledge acquisition, upon which I choose to focus is language learning. While knowledge acquisition is much broader, this is an […]

25 Aug Determinacy in Neural Connections

Neural Net

For many years, researchers thought that it was wrong to assume that there was a cell or set of cells in the brain that stored the memory of Grandma’s face. Though the comparison with computer memory was appealing, it was thought to be too simplistic and incorrect. Now, more researchers in different academic disciplines are assuming […]

18 Aug Modeling Positive and Negative Activation

Blue Neurons

Humans learn from both positive and negative experiences. The electrical flow between neurons can be positive (excitatory), propagating electrical potential flow along neural path to create further excitation and a bubbling-up effect, or negative (inhibitory) reducing or stopping the electrical potential flow along a pathway. Remember that a neural pathway is not like a long line, but like […]