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18 Aug Modeling Positive and Negative Activation

Blue Neurons

Humans learn from both positive and negative experiences. The electrical flow between neurons can be positive (excitatory), propagating electrical potential flow along neural path to create further excitation and a bubbling-up effect, or negative (inhibitory) reducing or stopping the electrical potential flow along a pathway. Remember that a neural pathway is not like a long line, but like […]

28 Apr Mosaic of Concepts

Stereo Vision

KR Mosaic On our way to knowledge representation (KR), we’ve looked at concepts and logical propositions and words and taxonomies. I know this can all be a bit confusing, but please bear with me a little longer. Word relations are more than a two-dimensional mosaic of related concepts – they form a deep hierarchy with multiple […]

12 Feb Conscious Phenomena

Conscious or Psychic

Conscious Phenomena For the past few posts, I have been exploring consciousness. Extra-sensory perception is a part, or an extension of consciousness. Are you sometimes psychic?  Some people have truly remarkable extra-sensory capabilities while others do not. I read a short story by Ursula K. Le  Guin, though I can’t for the life of me remember the […]

11 Feb Conscious Sensibility

Spiderweb 1

Watergate Revisited More than one President of the United States has been asked this question: “What happened, and how soon did you know about it?” Many cognitive psychologists perform experiments in which they ask subjects (people) the same question, seeking to mark the boundaries between conscious and unconscious phenomena. I recently spoke of mindfulness. Wakefulness may be a […]

29 Jan Brain Signal Variations

I’ve focused, in the last few posts, on the structural and functional variety in neurons and synapses. Brain signal variations include local potentials and post-synaptic potentials. Local potential differs from action potential in that the latter is generally characterized by a brief electrical spike and return to resting potential. This characterization of action potential does not always apply: […]

27 Jan Go With the Flow

Brain Flow

Modeling Neural Electrical Flow Patterns From looking at possible mechanisms for information storage, we move back to its movement. It may be important to understand the patterns of electrical flow in the brain to define good models for artificial systems that attempt to match human competence in cognitive processing tasks. This is what neural network and […]

25 Jan The Chromophore as Digital Bit

Brain Data

I have opined in prior posts that the skeletal components that give structure to axons and dendrites, especially microtubules, may play a larger role in cognition than previously thought. The illustration of microtubule structure at right shows how the alpha and beta tubulin dimers string themselves together to make protofilaments, which further join one another […]

14 Jan Timing is Everything: Asynchronicity of E/I


Time marches straight on in a never-ending rhythm, never stopping to rest – never missing a beat. After memory fails, and all the mainsprings unwind, time strides forward. Coincidence and synchronicity of events in the physical universe are time bound, but not necessarily meaning bound. In the human brain, time loses relevance and thought flows in lesser […]

08 Jan E/I Electric Potential Curve

Action Potentials Classic Curve

Challenge I’ve noticed two phenomena in computing that have often been compared to brain activity even though they don’t significantly resemble the behavior of electrical potential changes between neurons: Flip-Flop (the changing of a “register” from 0 to 1 Node Firing (The activation of a node in an artificial neural network) In this section of Understanding Context, I’ve been trying to […]

06 Jan Excitation and Inhibition

Most, if not all, neural information-processing functions involve the flow of action potential. Impulses in the nervous system are changes in the action potential or electrical charge of membranes. It is possible that, in addition to the membranes, the potential within the cytoplasm of the cell changes as a result of electrical flow in neurons. […]